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     "axae" - caoe aeoe poeee pacx aco epcco epayp, epeeaxc coe pa o o oa accecoo epoa (pye XV-XVI coe). poyc ocac ep acco, a eo oa - ocoo apoo oee oce oocoe py o pya epcco aco epayp. (...)
     B eee coe epo, oa opoc oee eppop, coa coeo aoaoo ocyapca caoc opo . a pa apoaoc ooee oe poyc, "axae" caoac a aee oee. Payeec, pa pae oe copeco peae op oo aeaeoc oee, a ae coae py, cpeec cooa "axae" cox ex. Ta, apep, epec poyc eo oe oocpc XVI ., epo coe ceeco, ee eoao ocyapeoc paa.




      o, acoc, ceecye oe ooopae pyoce "axae" a ox, a . ae XVI-XVII , epo opaoa ooco epa oo oe ecy aa epeca "axae". oee pae, aa c ypyao peo 1906-1911 ., pace epec eao oe a co copo pax pyo, a co copo pox eopaecx acc. B oax eoaoo, a ae ypyaoo oee cpa ee poeca po yeeoo ac, opaee aoaoy ycy, o e oo e a oa apoe. pox acc paox epco ao cea ocoeo co epo eoax yco ceapaa oa poyc caoac ooee eaa apooo eca paax eaoaoo cpaeoo coeo ocyapca.
     Ta opao, oa "axae" poyc poa cae peee epe cy e ocaac apo ea accec poeee aco epcco epayp.
     O eco, oeo, ye yepee, o ce epoo-ece poee accecoro oceaccecoo epoa oc e ce opaa "axae". opaae pooc cooa epa (paooo yaapa), opae apxaeco ece, peax oca, pax oo . .
     B poo cce co a aaex "opaa" poyc ac oa poee oo apa (apep "caep-ae" Ha p.). Oocc ca o a copeee aopa e, e cae c o copeco eao "axae" (apep poee Xocpoa exe).
     B ao cyae ac epecy poee, eocpeceo pae "axae", epeeaec ceo co caa "axae". B epaype XI . a paca a capa aae oe . Hecoeo, aepee pao a "axae" ao o oo oe ax poee. Ho o e ypy poyc, a a oo eo oecoae paccao o ac o cox yax Pocea, o ce Coxpaa pyx.
     Ha a , pae "axae" o-ee o XI-XII . ee e acoo ye, o oo o peeo caa o x coe cyee. Ho eoope oe ce e ceye oe.
     Moo oop, o poee oc a ce oce ycexa "axae", o "axae" poya epec paco eco cape? yaec, e. O oc eaco o "axae", c c aooep coae poaecx coo X ., aeyx oco o o pe epec copecoy pooy.
     He ae ya, o caa o epecoa oo eaccpyeec X . capoe exaco ye yex caao. C o pe ce aaeoc x caa epec a o e oo pae.
     eceo, aoe oaco ceo, e, opao! o eco eree, ca 'cop - "ap oo" p ope Maxya ece opaoa caa o ceape, ooy, coepece c py oa opye Maxya, o eo a poyc, eo oc p ope c ooo oo.
     Ta opao, eea oop o opaoe x caa cpee popx oo XI , o "axae". Ho ye e eeo, a pea ao c "epac-ae" Aca Tyccoo. (cepea XI .), "epaop-ae" eecoo aopa (aaa XI .), "Ky-ae" ( "oec o Ky--eae" aa XI .). "ay-oac-ae" eecoro aopa (XI .), "apy-ae" - o oa o ce Coxpaa, aco aea ec "axae", "axpap-ae" Moxap, ecoo popoo oa aeo (cepea XI .), "Aep-op-ae" - o ce epaopa, "exap-ae" - o ce Pocea p pyx, a o "Ca-ae" (a pyee XIII-XIV .).
     B cyex o oax, pax "axae", oo oepaec x oee apy caooo aapoo ("papcoo") poaa. o pao, ec oop o oax pa apa, o peye yoe.
     B ocoe coe aae o oe epcpoa opaoa apox ecx caa, no epo pepac coo coe o Aca Tycc (XI .) "epac-ae", o pe a pye aop o e cee ooc o apooo opaa, pcoco oa aepa yca aao. o o ac pope o-poeccoa ae apoe ee caa eoao-apcopaec, . e. oo eoo caa apoe caa. Ta o eo xapaepe opao apox o pocxoe cao. Ec eceo p opaoa caa o ceape ec a opaoa oa o ac, yec, o p ecoex cox xyoecex ococax ee "ap oo" p ope Maxya e a eo, o oo e opac cyay.
     Tpyee ceo o opaoa popo yce opa Pocea (co c e ep apooo epo), ooo acepa o ooo. Taa aca opaa eeo oea a coo ooe opaee c pa apo cao, yxo oac oo aac, o op o eceoc, eae yoo ocoe apox cao.
     oye pae a opao x ceo, ceae XI oceyx eax, e o cyecy a pea ac a opao a aepa, oce xapaepy oy poyc. A apoa oe "axae"- ea a aoao epayp - ocaac eax.(...)
     a coe co apooe coo xyoeceoe poeee, "axae" xo a pa aoax pacx . Coc oopc a ocoe X . apc XI . ece ece ae a aae paa, . e. a .
     B oceye epo (ceyc - XI-XII ooc - XIII-XIV .) apc ca epayp o opx eppop, aeo xox a pee cacacoo paa. py coa, ca epayp o apoo e pacx. apc - epayp Aepaaa ec epo XI-XII . (Xaa, ).
     epayp apc - epayp eoax epxo poo Cpee A, apy c pac ooaa c XV . (Aep Hao) capoyec ocoe ("aaac") epayp . o XIII . apc o epayp ceyco Mao A (Py).
     C XI . apc ca o epayp ycyaco ac , pe o epexoa epayp a aoae ooce x ypy, . e. o XVIII . o aeo pee apc coxpac . B eee ooo pee pox cpaax Bocoa apc coxpa aee opoo epaypoo a. Haoe, xpcacx epaypax ocooo Cpeeeo - pyco apco - epaypa a apc peyae yypoo oe a poo eca.
     Coepeo oeo, o ocoooaaee poeee epayp pacx apoo e e ca ocoe pee ceo x cax coe pa epayp aaa, Cpee A, . eceo, pacoaae oeco ao o epaypx cx opaex "axae" xyoeceo opece x apoo.
     Oe po opaoc "axae" pyco epaype. e pee eoc "Kapc xopea" axo yaa a apoe pyce apa pa ceo "axae"(. e. pacoo oca). Mooce pyoce pyce epc oox ceo ( o ce epopoax oy p). K XVI-XVII . oocc pyca cxoopo-poaeca epc, oa eoaac epeoo "axae", - "Pocoa", . e. oa o Pocee (cep Pocea aaaec pyca oa). "axae" poo eca a pax cox pycoo apoa. oa aac oe opaoax epaypx pyrax p opax pycx ape (aa Boooe, Taap) eoao. B pycx apaax oa caaac eac poo apoo ayop. oypoc "axae" oop oe e epoe pacoo oca, cax pyc ea (Poco, a, po p.).
     B ecx aaacx eo - ayo o ce, o, ea, cee ("xe") "axae". B XVIII . Ca-Hoa - ae apc ay, caa pyce aepaace cx, e o eccep poyc.
     Mao oceoa epaypo-oope c pacoo aacoo pa. Ho ec oocee oac opae apa ocecx, acx, caecx pyx apox caa, oopx cpeac ea ocoe oer ceo, cae c Poceo, eo, Apacao eoop py. ec oe oeeo ocooe ceee ecx pycx ocecx caa o Apae (Apae) pyx co caa "axae". B x oopx acoex aoe, oao, coco o, o o opay aacy ooe eo-xyoeceoe eco c apaco . Oa oa a opaee oeco op aaa c pac ep . Poce oa opaaec opa po paa, a cooeceo Apaca (Apcya) - paco ap. Taeoe yee aacx pcx opae pacoo oca ocoeo ao ee ooy, o ec aco axo e pace apa, e apoae "axae", apa, a e ece.
     Bce ooopae a ceecy o o c ceo opao "axae", pacoro oca ooe, c ec apo caa cocex cpa.
     Moo oop e oo o aocx apooro opec x yypo oaxc apoo, o o "axae" poyc a cooxyoeceo, acepco opao aaox ceo. Opae oo oo poce epaypax cao apoo opece oocex aacx pcx cocee epco .
     e aoc pee ceo opee epayp ycex apoy oypoc o poyc a peea coceo pacoro pa.
     B yecx caax "axae"oe x e co , pea, o, yaa x - a oo opae.
     "axae"- oo ocox accecx poee Bocoa, oopeeo aeae a poo epayp. 6 o ao ceecy oocee epeo o a oe copeeoro pa, a ae aye ayo-oype pao yex Capoo Hooo cea. (...)
     epaype c opae "axae" opao pacoo oca ooe poo epaype (e acac px epeoo)- ocoa ee aeo e pacpa ea. M ocec ee ecox coax.
     "axae"- epaypa opaoa apooo oca paa, ooo oaex pe. o oaco ocec yoo peoc, eopaec ooee, po eyapo c, yypo-copeco po pacx apoo peoc Cpee ea. Ta epc opa coe oce, a oee epaype paoopae caa pyx copacaxc c apoo - , Ka Bocooo Typecaa, Bocoo Epo Cp, Kaaa, cpa accecoo peo Bocoa epoecoo Cpeeoop. poecc o, payeec, e opaoe eee - opaee pax opax cee pacx caa oce x apoo, e axo aaoe o, ce, opa. o pee ceo peya aooepoo apaea ooe oope x cooec c ope yco apoo. Ho oo e eco opecoe ocpe eaoo poee poyc.
     Mo opa aapoax eyx epoe - "eoeoo" ceapa pae, Axeca o, pa "ec o Heyax", Mypoa, oopoy "cep o e acaa", Pocea, oopoy e cyeo ac o, o o oa c eya co pye ocoe coe eac, o oex opoocx oo ee ao.
     eca epaypa opaoa ax oo ceo "axae" poyc aa opaee epaypx poeex ox epaypx opaoax oopx . pe o opaee oo e oo peyao oo , eocpeceoo aoca c "axae", aco oo oao a cece oopx ce oaxc ey coo apoo. O oocex pepo "axae" a oopee apox coe ocoe opao oe cy pycca a caa XVI-XVII . o Epycae aapee ee yoe apa.
     Caoe Epyca aape coocaec c ee Pocea, ca a (3a- apa), epeocceoo "aap", ooope o ca a e cxoco co cea "axae". o - aooepa aao, payec, e ea eo oeo c oa oc pocxoee pyccoo oo oca e Bocoa "axae", . paoep coocae eoopx acx oeo, o o cpae pyccoo oo Mypoa - peccoo ca c aee e Poceo "axae" ( aaooe cpaee Kyxyaea "Kaea" c e e Poceo) e e o coo ao o. Bece c e e ooopae epaypx oopx ce opeee aee "axae" a aa poo epayp, a coepae e o coea c xyoece acepco ee aopa.
     "axae" - aoaoe poeee pacx apoo pee ceo, o eo ooy, o Ayace poyc c ao ooo, yo acepco xyoeceoo ooe pa oe coe apooe, aoaoe, o aae ocooe eco py ex oo pa.
     "axae" - yoo pao, popecco, eoeo oco. Bce ep po oy poyc c py e poee cycca. eo ec ceye ca ocoy eccep pooo ae o.
     Ec oop o eax poeex pooo cycca, cea yy aa cooecye oac ecoo e, ecoo poee, oope e oy a. cee, oyeae, poee eccep.
     ea pyc o oa Pycae (XII .) peco "B poo ype" op o ypee aeoc e coee c co acepco a o epeex ycox coa eoo poee: "ap aeo - o oac apce ypoc coo", "He o, o e-o, a-o cx-pyo cyao cae...o cpa e ce ep... e eo pa".
     Bcooe xyoeceoe acepco coea c eoc, apooc a pa opee oyeaoc "axae". Moyeaoc coepa apoec coeaec ec c oyeaoc op.
     eceo, oa paoa, e oee o o poeee ooo aopa, a e co pax apoo-ecx epaypx aepao, oopc oa eee coe, a, apep, ca "Maxaxapaa".
     B cce po oxaa co o apo pa e ee ao paoo oe, a "axae".
     B cao ee, ec , apep, ao-y peec aop - oep oeeo pee - opa eo oe ( ec pa peae oe "a" "cce") ec peecx caa, a pa copec epo, oe epccx o, pace aee A, oee Maeo, yec oxo Aecapa a oco, epe op aoxo oo ao oe o p e opaee a pcy po (168 . o . .), o e ooe "axae" poyc peepeeco epaype.
     Aaoe coocae oo o a a aepae epayp pyrx apoo pa. eo o, o oo epayp oe e pae ce a opaec c oo, apoe ece caa cop, e oee x oooe eoe aoeoe eoe, a o ee eco "axae" poyc.
     To, o eo pa coa aoe ceoe poo epaype poeee, a "axae" poyc, pecaec ao aooep o cy coea ocox copecx yco, ceax oo oee aepee o.
     Bce o, payeec, e opeee oeo peocxoca epayp paa a peepeeco, pee, aco py ( o ce epoec), o ceecye .
     Topeco poyc, a opao, ec peeo aoo opoc copee ao epco, oopx "axae" - ocooe accecoe poeee poo epayp. Bece c e, "axae" - oo aoee aex poee poo epayp.

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( "", 1957 , " ", )




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